||The Jewish Colonization Association (JCA, in Yiddish ICA) was created in 1891 by the Baron Maurice de Hirsch. Its aim was to facilitate the mass emigration of Jews from Russia and other Eastern European countries by settling them in agricultural colonies on lands purchased by the committee, particularly in North and South America. A Canadian committee of the JCA was established in November 1906 to assist in the settlement of the thousands of Jewish refugees fleeing Russia and other European countries and to oversee the development of all the JCA settlements in the country. Colonies were established prior to 1906 throughout the west and in Quebec. These colonies included: in Saskatchewan - Hirsch (1892), Qu'Appelle or Lipton (1901), Cupar, near Regina (1901), Edenbridge east of Prince Albert (1906), and Sonnenfeld, west of Estevan (1906); in Manitoba - Bender Hamlet or Narcisse, north of Winnipeg (1903); in Quebec - La Macaza (1904) and Ste-Sophie (1904), both north of Montreal; and Trochu (1906) and Rumsey (1906), halfway between Calgary and Edmonton in Alberta. After the establishment of the Canadian committee, the JCA founded several others, including: Pine Ridge (1907), not far from Winnipeg; Eyre (1910), near Alsask in Saskatchewan, and Montefiore (1911), Alberta, on the western border between Alberta and Saskatchewan near Alsask in Saskatchewan; Bird's Hill (1911), east of Winnipeg; Camper or New Hirsch (1911), 150 kilometres north of Winnipeg; and Rosetown (1911), near the town of the same name in Saskatchewan. Economic factors, notably the Great Depression, led to the dissolution of all the Western colonies by the end of World War II. Thereafter concentrating its work in the East, the Canadian JCA purchased farms or made loans to farmers in Ontario and Quebec: the Niagara Peninsula, the regions of Brantville-Woodstock, Spencerville-Kemptville, and Beamsville in Ontario, and Saint-Hyacinthe, Saint-Damase, Saint-Jean-Baptiste, Frelighsburg, and Clarenceville, in Quebec. The JCA Canadian Committee made no more loans after 1970 and ceased all legal existence in 1978. The JCA deposited the major part of its papers at the National Archives of the Canadian Jewish Congress in 1978, and the remainder of its documents (the "S" collection) there in 1989.