Badge : Woven, Printed, Sewn : Yellow, Purple, Beige ; Ht: 7,5 cm x W: 7 cm
Other Title Information
Fabric badge in shape of diamond. Center is yellow with purple borders. At center is capital letter P in purple. Narrative: Badge belonged to the donor, Aba Beer. While in Germany hiding his Jewish identity and passing as a Polish labourer, he was obliged to wear it to identify himself as non-Aryan. Aba was born in 1922 in Bielsko, Poland. In 1939, he moved east with his parents and sister, settling in Przemy?l. In the summer of 1942, he was included on a transport of 1000 Jews to work as slave labourers in the Janowska concentration camp, near Lviv. He escaped and pretending to be Polish, volunteered to go to Germany as a labourer. He worked in a restaurant in East Prussia until January 1944, when he was arrested for not wearing his badge. He was imprisoned in a castle in Ragnit, and then interned in a prisoner-of-war camp for Russian soldiers. He escaped the camp, joined the Polish partisans as a member of the Home Army (Armia Krajowa), and was liberated in Hela, May 1945.
Currency : Paper : Printed : Beige, Green, Black, Red ; Ht: 6 cm x W: 12 cm
Other Title Information
One horizontal rectangular page, double-sided. Object is a currency note from the ?ód? ( Litzmannstadt) Ghetto with the value of 1 mark. Printed on poor quality faded beige paper; on both recto and verso, most of the bill contains a rectangle comprised of a design of green lines creating overlapping 6-pointed stars of David. This graphic rectangle is bordered by an insignia combining stars of David and barbed wire. On recto, the text Eine Mark appears on a rectangle over the image of a menorah (Jewish candelabra). On both sides of the menorah, the number 1 is printed, surrounded by 8 concentric circles. The number 1 also appears at bottom left corner. Under the menorah, German text warns that those who distort or counterfeit this currency will be severely punished. On verso, Eine Mark is printed in large Gothic script. At top left corner of graphic rectangle, there is a green star of David within a white circle. At bottom left, the location of Litzmannstadt and the date of May 15, 1940 are printed. At bottom right, the signature of Chaim Mordechai Rumkowski, head of the Jewish council, is printed. Note is numbered 1214586 in red ink. Narrative: ?ód? Ghetto currency note, donated by Aba Beer. Throughout Nazi-occupied Europe, many ghettos and concentration camps issued coins, bills, and coupons. This practice served multiple purposes: it functioned as a security measure, since escapees could not use this currency in the outside world, and it was also a means of separation and humiliation for internees and prisoners. In ?ód?, a separate system of currency was issued because Jews were forbidden from handling German money. Coins and bills from this ghetto were known colloquially as 'Rumkies', after the head of the ghetto's Jewish Council (Judenrat), Chaim Mordechai Rumkowski.