Identification card : Paper : Printed, Handwritten : Ink : Yellow, Black, Red, White ; Ht: 6,5 in. x W: 4 in.
Other Title Information
[Prior to 1944]
1 page, double-sided. Document is the first page of identification card issued to Jews in German-occupied Krakow. Document numbered 18173, issued to Hela Friedmann. Small b&w photograph of cardholder affixed at center right of recto with a grommet. Space for 2 fingerprints on left of photo, left blank. Signature directly underneath. On verso, document indicates that she was born on June 19, 1924 and is of Polish nationality. Her profession was Waschflickerin ?, something related to laundering. Cardholder was not married. Space for listing children under 14 years old is blank. Narrative: No additional information is known about the holder of this identity card or what happened to her. Krakow was occupied by Germany in the first week of September, 1939. By March 1941, more than 55 000 Jews had been expelled from the city, and the remaining 15 000 to 20 000 Jewish residents were concentrated in the closed ghetto. By the end of 1943, the vast majority of them were murdered: either deported to Bel?ec, dead from starvation or illness, or shot in the ghetto. After liberation, less than 5 000 Jews resurfaced in Krakow.